Universe is full of secrets and mysteries that mankind has not yet unraveled. It is believed that if we travel back in time around 13.8 billion years we may reach a ‘singularity’. A singularity is an extremely dense, hot and energetic point where the laws of physics of space and time are no longer functional. Despite trying very hard we haven’t been able to see what lies beyond a singularity and how our universe formed. We however, are aware of the fact that a singularity exists inside a black hole and this one fact may have a lot to do with how the universe was formed according to what physicist Ethan Siegel explained in Forbes.
Is our Universe actually a spawn?
According to what Siegel reported, it may be a little preposterous but if we look at things from a mathematical perspective, it is possible that our universe could have been formed as a result of a star collapsing into a black-hole in an alternate four-dimensional universe. This idea was first proposed by theoretical physicists at the Perimeter Institute and University of Waterloo in Canada, in 2014. Despite trying very hard to prove it wrong, this idea still hasn’t been ruled out yet.
We know this much about the Big Bang, that right after the singularity, the universe started expanding. It went through a rapid inflation process within a few fractions of a second and increased in size by around 1026. After this it slowed down and expanded more gradually. We also know that in our three dimensional universe, black holes are wrapped in a two dimensional boundary and this boundary is what marks the ‘point of no return’ for matter. An artist’s impression of what this might look like is given below:
Siegel and singularities
Black holes and the Big Bang are the only two singularities that we know of in this universe. Singularities are points where the laws that govern the universe no longer work. Based on our minimal understanding of the universe, it is governed by two rules; quantum mechanics and general relativity. Black holes do not follow these rules as their event horizons are much wider than what can be explained by the particles present inside. According to Siegel, “The fact that black holes in our Universe are much more massive than this isn’t a problem. It simply means that the laws of physics that we know break down at the singularity we calculate at the centre. If we ever want to describe it accurately, it’s going to take a unification of quantum theory with general relativity. It’s going to take a quantum theory of gravity."
We know nothing more about these singularities and as suggested by three physicists from the Perimeter Institute and University of Waterloo, maybe the two singularities are one and the same. There is a possibility that the Universe was born out of a black hole. Maybe our universe is a three dimensional packaging around another universe’s black hole or event horizon. "In this scenario, our Universe burst into being when a star in a four-dimensional universe collapsed into a black hole," a Perimeter Institute press release explained back in 2014. Mathematically, this theory holds up. According to Siegel we may not be able to calculate the events inside a black hole’s singularity but we can calculate what happens on the boundary of the event horizon. And surprisingly, this matches pretty well with the birth of the Universe. Siegel explained:
“As the black hole first formed, from a star’s core imploding and collapsing, the event horizon first came to be, then rapidly expanded and continued to grow in area as more and more matter continued to fall in. If you were to put a coordinate grid down on this two-dimensional wrapping, you would find that it originated where the gridlines were very close together, and then expanded rapidly as the black hole formed, and then expanded more and more slowly as matter fell in at a much lower rate. This matches, at least conceptually, what we observe for the expansion rate of our three-dimensional Universe."
Even though this is just a hypothesis but it is still very exciting to think that our universe could be spawning more two dimensional universes every time a black hole forms. Let’s wait till the scientists dig up some more information regarding this big idea.